Chapter 14, Table 4: Using SPSS Statistics

Chapter 14, Table 4: Higher Order Designs for Repeated Measures (Multivariate Approach) via SPSS Point and Click

For the hypothetical data contained in Table 14.4 adds a level of the angle factor (specifically the 4 degree angle) to the data contained in Table 14.1. Recall that a perceptual psychologist studying the visual system was interested in determining the extent to which interfering visual stimuli slow the ability to recognize letters. Participants were brought into a laboratory where they were seated in front of a tachistoscope. Variations in the presentations of letters is examined with interest being on the reaction time for target letters presented either in the center of the screen or off centered with and without “noise” accompanying the target letters.

1. The analysis of the data given in Table 14.4 begins in exactly the same way as did the data contained in Table 14.1. As before, the Repeated Measures procedure can be utilized by first clicking on Analyze, then clicking General Linear Model and then clicking the Repeated Measures tab. Once the Repeated Measures Define Factor(s) menu is displayed, the two factors must be defined. This is done by defining the first factor as noise and specifying “2” levels of the factor and then clicking Add and defining angle with “3” levels (of course these levels can be defined in the reverse order). Once Add has been clicked again (so as to add angle to the analysis), clicking Define allows the particular columns of the data to be correctly specified into the SPSS system.

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Determine Factors and Number of Levels

2. To define the data, the columns of the data are moved to the Within-Subjects Variables box with particular attention on correctly defining the levels of the factors. In this case, because we specified the first factor as noise, noise is the factor that “changes slowest” in the specification of the Within-Subjects Variables. This is illustrated in the screen shot below because within the first level of noise (absent), there are three different angles. Because noise was specified as the first (“slowest changing”) factor and then we specified angle second (“fastest changing”) factor, the order of the specification should be absent zero degree, absent four degree, absent eight degree, present zero degree, present four degree, and finally present eight degree. This can be seen below:

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Ensure correct order of Within-Subject Variables

3. At this point clicking OK will yield the results of interest. By default, SPSS performs several types of analyses. For the present analysis, the only output of interest is contained in the Multivariate Tests table. The results contained in theMultivariate Tests table match those given on page 694 in the text. At the present time there does not seem to be any way to perform tests of simple effects directly from the Repeated Measures point and click interface using Table 11.4. However, these tests of simple effects and confidence intervals around them can be done with SPSS Point and Click and SPSS Syntax by using the D variables contained in Table 11.5. Thus, the examples provided with Table 11.5 show how the remaining analyses of interest can be formed.